Legal Education

Legal EducationUndergraduate courses
Law is one of the most demanding degree courses you can choose to study. Here we take you through the process of applying for the course and some tips on how to survive it.

If you have decided that a legal career is the one for you, then you should be aiming to kick off the academic stage of your training by reading law at university. That said, as you are about to find out, you do not necessarily have to study law to qualify as a solicitor or barrister.

Making the grade
Good written presentation, motivation, logical thinking and, indeed, an interest in law are essential, but realistically you will also need stellar A-level results. Because of the fierce competition for places on law degrees, many of the top universities require applicants to gain a minimum of three A grades (360 Ucas points).

Traditional universities also prefer applicants who have studied academic A-levels. Studying drama, media studies or art by no means excludes you, but law schools do prefer candidates to have A-levels in traditional subjects such as history or economics.

Contrary to popular belief, some undergraduate law schools do not look favourably on A-level law, while some schools have actively avoided taking on students who have one.
There has been extensive debate in recent times about whether A-levels have become easier, but whatever the reason, more students than ever are attaining top grades a trend that is causing headaches for university admissions departments up and down the country.

To help to differentiate between the large numbers of high-achieving students, a group of the largest law schools banded together to launch the National Admissions Test for Law (LNAT) in 2004. Since then the consortium has grown and sitting the LNAT is now compulsory for students wanting to study law at Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Durham, Exeter, Glasgow, Nottingham and Oxford universities, plus Kings College London and University College London. The LNAT costs 40 to sit in the UK or EU.

The LNAT is taken on a computer terminal and comprises multiple-choice and essay questions.

The multiple-choice element consists of a series of argumentative passages, with a few questions on each to test the candidates powers of comprehension, interpretation, analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction the verbal reasoning skills at the heart of legal education.

You do not have to have any knowledge of the law to take the test, just a good grasp of the English language. The essay component of the LNAT tests the ability of candidates to argue economically (ie in the minimum words necessary) in clear English and involves writing a conclusion in a maximum of 70 words. To find out more, check out www.lnat.ac.uk.

Choosing a university
The content of law courses varies considerably some are very theoretical, while others are very practical so it is worth finding out more about the course from the institution before you make a choice. An increasing number of law faculties are holding open days and attending these can be very helpful.

Also, make sure the degree you are applying for is a qualifying LLB (Bachelor of Law) degree.

Some universities offer BAs (Bachelor of Arts) in law. But unlike the LLB, some of these courses may not be counted as one of the steps towards qualifying as a lawyer, as they do not cover all seven foundations of legal knowledge. Check in individual university prospectuses for further details.

Alternatively, take a look at the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) website (www.sra.org.uk), which keeps a list of all qualifying law degrees and the universities that offer them.

If you are sure that you want to become a solicitor at the end of your degree, find out more about the four-year exempting law degree offered by the University of Northumbria in Newcastle. This course combines the law degree with the Legal Practice Course (LPC) and can work out as a cheaper alternative to doing the two courses separately. Alternatively, check out the University of
Huddersfield, which recently launched a similar offering. Huddersfields four-year course combines the LLB with a Master of Law in Practice, which also exempts students from the LPC.

Although commercial law firms make a big deal of their willingness to recruit students from any
university, the fact remains that, at least for the time being, the majority of trainees still hail from
traditional redbrick universities, so this is also worth taking into account when you apply.

Law degrees are applied for through Ucas in the same way as for any other undergraduate course and you can start applying from the beginning of the second year of your A-levels (applications open on 1 September). Note that if you need to complete the LNAT, you will still have to apply for your university place through Ucas.

Ucas application process typically begins in early September for entry to university in the following academic year. While the application process stays open for several months, it is advisable to get your forms in as early as possible.

Also, note that the deadline for applying to Oxford and Cambridge universities normally closes in mid-October. For more information on university admissions, it is worth taking a look at the Ucas website (www.ucas.ac.uk).

Non-law graduates
A common misunderstanding among aspiring lawyers is that you have to read law at university if you want to qualify as a solicitor or barrister. The good news is that this is simply not the case. You will, however, need to do an extra years post-graduate study (see page 13 for more details on converting to law).

So providing you have a strong academic record, your lack of a law degree will not act as a disadvantage. Indeed some firms often have around a 60:40 split of law and non-law graduates. Again, traditional subjects such as economics and history are viewed favourably by law firms, as well as sciences and modern languages. Victoria Wisson, graduate recruitment officer at City firm CMS Cameron McKenna, says: Law firms dont really mind whether you have law at A-level or degree level since theres the opportunity to convert to law afterwards. What theyre looking for is dedication and commitment to this choice of career, which can be shown through work experience and your choice of academic subjects.

Breaking the bank
There is no denying that going to university is going to be expensive. From the start of the 2006-07 academic year, the annual tuition fees at most universities was unfortunately increased to a whopping 3,000. Thankfully, help is at hand. You can apply for a subsidised loan, which attracts a low rate of interest, from the Student Loans Company (SLC) to cover the cost of course fees and maintenance.

This includes a tuition fee loan of up to 3,070 (2007-08 figure) to cover the course fees. You should also be eligible for a maintenance loan to pay for your living expenses. This, however, is means-tested so your maximum entitlement will be subject to place of residence and year of course.

You do not have to start repaying the loan until you have left higher education and are earning more than 15,000 per year. For more information, go to the SLCs website at www.slc.co.uk.

Depending on your personal circumstances, you may also be eligible for bursaries and grants. Some universities may even offer scholarships. For more information contact your local education authority or the universities you wish to apply to.

University life
Assuming you can get fantastic A-level results, make mincemeat of the LNAT, dazzle law school heads with your knowledge and enthusiasm and win a coveted place at the university of your dreams, what should you expect once you get there?

Hard work, hard work and a bit more hard work. Do not be shocked if you are given a reading list as long as your arm. Although you will spend less time attending lectures and seminars than some of your peers, you will still be expected to put in many more
hours of independent study.

Emphasis and content will vary, but all qualifying law degree courses must teach the seven foundations of legal knowledge: criminal law; equity and trusts; EU law; contract law; tort law; property law; and public law (including constitutional law, administrative law and human rights law).

In addition, students are expected to become skilled in legal research. You will be assessed through a combination of coursework and exams.

A distinct lack of spoon-feeding is a major characteristic of all law degrees, and this can be a culture shock after life in the sixth-form.

For qualifying purposes, the required pass mark is 40 per cent regardless of the pass mark set by the university itself. And do not forget that the degree will only remain valid for seven years after which it cannot be counted towards the qualification process.

Commercial law firms usually ask for a minimum degree class of 2:1. If you have anything less then you will need to have some pretty good extenuating circumstances to get an interview.

Have fun and make friends in your first year, but remember that your first-year results are what law firms use to decide whether to offer you a summer work placement. So make life easier for yourself and make sure you get the grades.

Extracurricular activities
While you are at university, taking part in extracurricular activities is not only good fun, it also develops important skills and enhances your CV. Most universities have law societies run by students. Law firms target societies at some universities, offering anything from sponsorship of the law society ball to organising visits to the firms offices.

If you are lucky you may also get the chance to take part in pro bono work free legal advice for charities or other deserving clients although this is still relatively limited at undergraduate level. And for those looking to practise their skills in the courtroom, the good news is that most universities organise mooting competitions, which allow students to present arguments in mock cases.

Last but not least, it goes without saying that any work experience you can get that demonstrates your interest in the law is valuable. That said, non-law related work experience, including summer jobs, will also go a long way to give your application for a training contract the edge.
If you are serious about carving out a career as a commercial lawyer, you should also be crafting your commercial awareness. What this means is an understanding of the business context in which law firms operate. So get into the habit of reading the business pages and the legal press such as The Lawyer and Lawyer 2B.

The best way to demonstrate that you have what it takes to cut it as a commercial lawyer is to start thinking like one as early as possible.